"AS adalah mitra dagang kami, tetangga kita, sekutu kami dan teman kita ... dan kadang-kadang kita ingin memberi mereka menampar seperti itu!" - Rick Mercer...
Rita Hayworth (October 17, 1918 – May 14, 1987) was an American film actress and dancer who attained fame during the 1940s not only as one of the era's top musical stars, but also as one of the era's defining sex symbols, most notably in Gilda (1946). She appeared in 61 films over 37 years and is listed as one of the American Film Institute's Greatest Stars of All Time.
1 Early career
1.1 From Cansino to Hayworth
2 Career success
3 Later career
4 Personal life
6 Health problems
11.1 As Rita Cansino
11.2 As Rita Hayworth
13 Further reading
14 External links
Born Margarita Carmen Cansino in Brooklyn, New York City, she was the daughter of Spanish flamenco dancer Eduardo Cansino, Sr. and English/Irish-American Ziegfeld girl Volga Hayworth. Her father wanted her to become a dancer; while her mother hoped she'd become an actress. Her grandfather, Antonio Cansino, was the most renowned exponent in his day of Spain's classical dances; he made the bolero famous. He also gave Miss Hayworth her first instruction in dancing." "From the time I was three and a half," Hayworth said, ". . . as soon as I could stand on my own feet, I was given dance lessons." Her father said initially she wasn't interested in dancing.
Ballet-trained by her father, Hayworth was dancing at age four, and on stage by age six as a member of The Cansinos, a famous family of Spanish dancers working in vaudeville. Her father had performed in a dancing duo with his sister, and later revived the duo with his daughter Rita as his dancing partner, performing in nightclubs in California and the Foreign Club in Tijuana, Mexico. She was dancing 20 shows every week when she was in her early teens. At age fourteen, she made her professional debut in a stage prologue to Back Street at the Carthay Circle Theater in Los Angeles. At age sixteen, she attracted the attention of film producers as part of "The Dancing Cansinos," and was signed by 20th Century Fox in 1935 for the film Dante's Inferno.
After her option was not renewed by Fox, Rita Cansino freelanced at minor film studios doing 14 B movies before signing with Columbia Pictures in 1937. She had spent $500 of her husband's money on a fancy evening gown, and got a table in a Hollywood nightclub near Harry Cohn, Columbia president, and director Howard Hawks, "and let nature take its course."
From Cansino to Hayworth
The 5'6" and 120-lb dancer who wore size 5.5 shoes signed a seven-year contract with Columbia Studios, which changed her name to Rita Hayworth, and ordered her to dye her hair red. Her stage name was derived from the shortening of her own first name (Margarita) to Rita and her Irish mother's maiden name (Haworth) to Hayworth.
After two more years of minor roles, she gave an impressive performance in Howard Hawks' Only Angels Have Wings (1939), as part of an ensemble cast headed by Cary Grant. Her sensitive portrayal of a disillusioned wife sparked the interest of other studios. Between assignments at Columbia, she was borrowed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for George Cukor's Susan and God (1940) with Joan Crawford and Warner Brothers for Raoul Walsh's The Strawberry Blonde (1941) with James Cagney.
While on loan to 20th Century Fox for Rouben Mamoulian's Blood and Sand (1941) starring Tyrone Power, Hayworth achieved stardom with her sizzling performance as the amoral and seductive Doña Sol de Miura. This Technicolor(™) film branded her as one of Hollywood's most-beautiful redheads. Gene Tierney was originally intended for the role but was dropped by Fox studio executive Darryl F. Zanuck when she eloped with Oleg Cassini. Carole Landis was the next choice for the role, but refused to dye her blonde hair red and was replaced by Hayworth prior to filming. Fox then borrowed Hayworth from Columbia and dyed her dark-brown hair auburn which soon became her best-remembered feature.
Her stardom was solidified when she made the cover of Time magazine as Fred Astaire's new dancing partner in You'll Never Get Rich (1941), and immediately received rave reviews: "she was the best partner he had ever had. She learned steps faster than anyone I've ever known," said Astaire. "I don't know how she does it, but she learns routines at lunch." Hayworth said they practiced together seven hours a day for five weeks. Hayworth was hand-picked by Astaire to dance with him. "He came to Columbia to make a picture," Hayworth remembered, "and told Harry Cohn he needed a dancer to be his partner. Cohn said, 'We don't have one.' Astaire said, 'Yes you do. Eduardo Cansino's daughter. I know her father's work, and, if she's danced with him, she must be alright.'"
She co-starred with Astaire again in You Were Never Lovelier (1942). Although Astaire was more than pleased with Hayworth's dancing and considered her an excellent partner — he said that she was his "favorite" dance partner — he declined to have her appear in any more pictures with him. He did not want to be linked up with a single partner again, as he was with Ginger Rogers and earlier with his sister Adele Astaire.
Hayworth in October 1941 in a pink and silver lamé evening dress designed by Howard Greer.In 1941 Rita Hayworth was called "The Great American Love Goddess" by Winthrop Sargent, a Life magazine writer. The "love goddess" image was cemented with Bob Landry's 1941 Life magazine photograph of her (kneeling on her own bed in a silk and lace nightgown), which caused a sensation and became (at over five million copies) one of the most-requested pin-ups during World War II when she ranked with Betty Grable, Dorothy Lamour, Hedy Lamarr and Lana Turner as the pin-up girls most popular with servicemen. Her vital statistics during the War were: 36.5-C-24-36. Hayworth also became Columbia's biggest star of the 1940s, under the watchful eye of studio chief Harry Cohn, who recognized her value. After she made Tales of Manhattan (1942) at Fox opposite Charles Boyer, Cohn would not allow Hayworth to be lent to other studios.
Hayworth's well-known films include the musicals that made her famous: You'll Never Get Rich (1941) and You Were Never Lovelier (1942) (both with Astaire, who wrote in his autobiography that she "danced with trained perfection and individuality"), My Gal Sal (1942) with Victor Mature, and her best-known musical, Cover Girl (1944) with Gene Kelly. Although her singing voice was dubbed in her films, Hayworth was one of Hollywood's best dancers, imbued with power, precision, tremendous enthusiasm, and an unearthly grace. She was "expert in ballet, tap, clog, ballroom and Spanish routines."
Hayworth in the strip scene from Gilda.Cohn continued to effectively showcase Hayworth's talents in Technicolor films: Tonight and Every Night (1945) with Lee Bowman, and Down to Earth (1947), with Larry Parks. Her erotic appeal was most notable in Charles Vidor's black-and-white film noir Gilda (1946) with Glenn Ford, which encountered some difficulty with censors. This role — in which Hayworth in black satin performed a legendary one-glove striptease — made her into a cultural icon as the ultimate femme fatale. Alluding to her bombshell status, in 1946 her likeness was placed on the first nuclear bomb to be tested after World War II (at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean's Marshall Islands) as part of Operation Crossroads.
Hayworth performed one of her best-remembered dance routines, the samba from Tonight and Every Night (1945), while pregnant with her first child, Rebecca Welles (daughter with Orson Welles). Hayworth was also the first dancer to partner with both Astaire and Kelly on film — the others being Judy Garland, Cyd Charisse, Vera-Ellen, and Leslie Caron.
Hayworth gave one of her most-acclaimed performances in Welles's The Lady from Shanghai (1948). Its failure at the box office was attributed in part to director/co-star Welles having had Hayworth's famous red locks cut off and the remainder of her hair dyed blonde for her role. This was done without Cohn's knowledge or approval and he was furious over the change. Her next film, The Loves of Carmen (1948) again with Glenn Ford, was the first film co-produced by Columbia and Hayworth's own production company, The Beckworth Corporation (named for her daughter Rebecca); it was Columbia's biggest moneymaker for that year. She received a percentage of the profits from this and all her subsequent films until 1955 when she dissolved Beckworth to pay off debts she owed to Columbia.
Hayworth had a strained relationship with Columbia. In 1943 she was suspended without pay for nine weeks because she refused to appear in "My Client Curley." In 1952 she refused to report for work because "she objected to the script." In 1955, she sued to get out of a contract with the studio, asking for her $150,000 salary, alleging filming failed to start work when agreed. "Harry Cohn thought of me as one of the people he could exploit," alleged Hayworth, "and make a lot of money. And I did make a lot of money for him, but not much for me."
Hayworth was still upset with Columbia and its head Harry Cohn many years after her film career had ended and he was dead. "I used to have to punch a time clock at Columbia," lamented Hayworth. "Every day of my life. That's what it was like. I was under exclusive contract -- like they owned me... He felt that he owned me... I think he had my dressing room bugged... He was very possessive of me as a person -- he didn't want me to go out with anybody, have any friends. No one can live that way. So I fought him ... You want to know what I think of Harry Cohn? He was a monster."
After her marriage to Aly Khan collapsed in 1951, Hayworth returned to America with great fanfare to star in a string of hit films: Affair in Trinidad (1952) with favorite co-star Glenn Ford, Salome (1953) with Charles Laughton and Stewart Granger, and Miss Sadie Thompson (1953) with José Ferrer and Aldo Ray, for which her performance won critical acclaim. Then she was off the big screen for another four years, due mainly to a tumultuous marriage to singer Dick Haymes.
Hayworth receives National Screen Heritage Award in 1977.After making Fire Down Below (1957) with Robert Mitchum and Jack Lemmon, and her last musical Pal Joey (1957) with Frank Sinatra and Kim Novak, Hayworth finally left Columbia. She received good reviews for her acting in such films as Separate Tables (1958) with Burt Lancaster and David Niven, and The Story on Page One (1960) with Anthony Franciosa, and continued working throughout the 1960s. She appeared with John Wayne in Circus World (1964) (U.K. title: Magnificent Showman), for which she received a Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Actress - Motion Picture Drama, her only notable-award nod.
She continued to act in films until the early 1970s and made a well-publicized 1971 television appearance on The Carol Burnett Show.
Her last film was The Wrath of God (1972).
In 1977, Hayworth was the recipient of the National Screen Heritage Award.
Naturally shy and reclusive, Hayworth was the antithesis of the characters she played. "I naturally am very shy," she said, "and I suffer from an inferiority complex." She once complained, "Men fell in love with Gilda, but they wake up with me." With typical modesty she later remarked that the only films she could watch without laughing were the dance musicals she made with Fred Astaire. "I guess the only jewels of my life," Hayworth said, "were the pictures I made with Fred Astaire."
She was close to her frequent co-star and next-door neighbor Glenn Ford.
Hayworth had two younger brothers: Vernon Cansino and Eduardo Cansino, Jr. They were both soldiers in World War II. Vernon left the United States Army in 1946 with several medals, including the Purple Heart. He married Susan Vail, a dancer. Eduardo Cansino Jr. followed Hayworth into acting; he was also under contract with Columbia Pictures. In 1950 he made his screen debut in Magic Carpet.
Elisa Cansino, her aunt, ran a dancing school in San Francisco. Her nephew Richard Cansino, is a voice actor in anime and video games; he has done most of his work under the name "Richard Hayworth."
Barbara Leaming claims in her book, If This Was Happiness: A Biography of Rita Hayworth (1989), that as a child and teenager, Hayworth was a victim of physical and sexual abuse by her father.
Hayworth had five marriages, which all ended in divorce, with each one lasting five years or less:
1) Edward Charles Judson (1937–1942);
2) Orson Welles (1943–1948, one daughter: Rebecca Welles);
3) Prince Aly Khan (1949–1953, one daughter: Princess Yasmin Aga Khan);
4) Dick Haymes (1953–1955); and,
5) James Hill (1958–1961).
"Basically, I am a good, gentle person," Hayworth once said, "but I am attracted to mean personalities."
Hayworth was only 18 when she married Edward Judson, a domineering 40-year-old man. He was an oilman turned promoter who played a major role in launching her acting career. He was a shrewd businessman and became her manager. "He helped me with my career," Hayworth conceded after they divorced, "and helped himself to my money." She alleged Judson compelled her to transfer considerable property to him and promise to pay him $12,000 under threats that he would do her "great bodily harm." She filed for divorce from him on February 24, 1942 with the complaint of cruelty. She also noted to the press that his work took him to Oklahoma and Texas while she lived and worked in Hollywood.
Rita Hayworth then rushed into a marriage with Orson Welles the day her divorce from Judson became official on September 8, 1943. None of her colleagues even knew about the planned marriage (before a judge) until she announced it the day before they got married. For the civil ceremony she wore a beige suit, ruffled white blouse, and a veil. A few hours after they got married, they returned to work at the studio. After marital struggles, and a final attempt at reconciliation, Hayworth said he told her he didn't want to be tied down by marriage.
"During the entire period of our marriage," she declared, "he showed no interest in establishing a home. When I suggested purchasing a home, he told me he didn't want the responsibility. Mr. Welles told me he never should have married in the first place; that it interfered with his freedom in his way of life."
Hayworth as Rosalind Bruce in Tonight and Every Night (1945).Hayworth left her film career in 1948 to marry Prince Aly Khan, a son of Sultan Mahommed Shah, Aga Khan III, the leader of the Ismaili sect of Shia Islam. Initially Hayworth and Aly Khan had trysts at the Pontchartrain Hotel in New Orleans, Louisiana. The couple moved to Europe, causing a media frenzy. Her bridal trousseau was Dior's New Look — after seeing her wearing it, every woman began to wear the somewhat-controversial longer hemline. Joseph L. Mankiewicz, in writing and directing The Barefoot Contessa (1954), was said to have based his title character, Maria Vargas (played on film by Ava Gardner), on Hayworth's life and her marriage to Aly Khan.
In 1951, while still married to her, he was spotted dancing with Joan Fontaine in the nightclub where they met. She responded by issuing him an ultimatum and threatening to divorce him in Reno, Nevada. In early May she moved to Nevada to establish legal residence to qualify for a divorce. She holed up in Lake Tahoe with her daughter despite a threat to kidnap her child. When she filed to divorce Khan on September 2, 1951, she did so on the grounds of "extreme cruelty, entirely mental in nature."
Hayworth once said she might become a Moslem like her husband. During the custody fight over their daughter Yasmin, Prince Khan said he wanted her raised as a Moslem; whereas Hayworth said she intended to raise her in the Christian faith. In fact, Hayworth turned down a $1,000,000 offer if she'd raise Yasmin as a Moslem from age seven and allow her to go to Europe for two or three months each year.
"Nothing will make me give up Yasmin's chance to live here in America among our precious freedoms and habits," declared Hayworth. "While I respect the Moslem faith and all other faiths it is my earnest wish that my daughter be raised as a normal, healthy American girl in the Christian faith. There isn't any amount of money in the entire world for which it is worth sacrificing this child's priviledge of living as a normal Christian girl here in the United States. There just isn't anything else in the world that can compare with her sacred chance to do that. And I'm going to give it to Yasmin regardless of what it costs."
Hayworth's separation from fourth husband Dick Haymes shook her so badly she had a "severe emotional shock," according to her doctor, who ordered her to remain in bed for several days.
On February 2, 1956, Hayworth married film producer James Hill, who put her in one of her last major films, Separate Tables. On September 1, 1961, Hayworth filed for divorce from Hill, alleging extreme mental cruelty. He later wrote the book Rita Hayworth: A Memoir in which he suggested their marriage collapsed because he forced Hayworth to continue making movies when she wanted both of them to retire from the Hollywood scene.
She never married again.
Hayworth struggled with alcohol throughout her life. "I remember as a child," said her daughter, Yasmin Aga Khan, "that she had a drinking problem. She had difficulty coping with the ups and downs of the business. . . . As a child, I thought, 'She has a drinking problem and she's an alcoholic.' That was very clear and I thought, 'Well, there's not much I can do. I can just, sort of, stand by and watch.' It's very difficult, seeing your mother, going through her emotional problems and drinking and then behaving in that manner. . . . Her condition became quite bad. It worsened and she did have an alcoholic breakdown and landed in the hospital."
In 1972, aged 54, Hayworth no longer wanted to act, but she signed up for The Wrath of God because she had money problems. The experience, however, exposed her bad health and worsening mental state. She couldn't remember her lines, so they had to film her scenes one line at a time. Extreme memory loss left her very nervous and resistant to doing at least one scene, which was then done by a double.
Even so, the following year Hayworth agreed to do one more movie, Tales That Witness Madness (1973). Her health was even worse by that time, so she abandoned the movie set, and returned to America. She never returned to acting.
In March 1974, both her brothers died within a week of each other, saddening her greatly, and causing her to drink even more heavily than before.
In 1976 at London's Heathrow Airport, Hayworth was removed from a TWA flight during which she had an angry outburst while traveling with her agent. "Miss Hayworth had been drinking when she boarded the plane," revealed a TWA flight attendant, "and had several free drinks during the flight." The event attracted much negative publicity; a disturbing photograph was published in newspapers showing her looking very disheveled, sad, lost, ill, and barely recognizable.
Rita Hayworth's drinking problem confused her family, friends, colleagues--and even doctors--who were unable to immediately recognize Alzheimer's Disease. "For several years in the 1970s, she had been misdiagnosed as an alcoholic."
"It was the outbursts," said her daughter, "She'd fly into a rage. I can't tell you. I thought it was alcoholism-alcoholic dementia. We all thought that. The papers picked that up, of course. You can't imagine the relief just in getting a diagnosis. We had a name at last, Alzheimer's! Of course, that didn't really come until the last seven or eight years. She wasn't diagnosed as an Alzheimer's until 1980. There were two decades of hell before that."
In July 1981, Hayworth's health had worsened to the point where a judge in Los Angeles Superior Court ruled that because she was suffering from senile dementia, and no longer able to care for herself, she should be placed under the care of her daughter, Princess Yasmin Khan of New York City.
She then lived in an apartment at The San Remo on Central Park West next to her daughter, who looked after her during her final years until she died.
Rita Hayworth lapsed into a semicoma in February 1987. She died a few months later on May 14 at age 68 of Alzheimer's disease in her Manhattan apartment.
A funeral service for Miss Hayworth was held at 10:00 a.m. on May 19, 1987 at the Church of the Good Shepherd in Beverly Hills, California. Pallbearers included actors Ricardo Montalban and Glenn Ford.
She was interred in Holy Cross Cemetery in Culver City, California (location: Grotto, Lot 196, Grave 6 (right of main sidewalk, near the curb)). Her headstone includes the inscription: "To yesterday's companionship and tomorrow's reunion."
"Rita Hayworth was one of our country's most beloved stars," said President Ronald Reagan, who himself had been an actor at the same time as Hayworth, and ironically later also had Alzheimer's disease. "Glamorous and talented, she gave us many wonderful moments on stage and screen and delighted audiences from the time she was a young girl. In her later years, Rita became known for her struggle with Alzheimer's disease. Her courage and candor, and that of her family, were a great public service in bringing worldwide attention to a disease which we all hope will soon be cured. Nancy and I are saddened by Rita's death. She was a friend who we will miss. We extend our deep sympathy to her family."
One of the major fund raisers for the Alzheimer's Association is the annual Rita Hayworth Galas, held in New York City and Chicago, Illinois. Hayworth's daughter, Princess Yasmin, has been the hostess for these events. Since 1985 they have raised more than US$42 million for the Association.
"I like having my picture taken and being a glamorous person. Sometimes when I find myself getting impatient, I just remember the times I cried my eyes out because nobody wanted to take my picture at the Trocadero."
"Harry Cohn made my black hair red and gave me my Irish mother's maiden name."
"Movies were much better in the days when I was doing them."
"Men fell in love with Gilda, but they wake up with me."
"I'm an afternoon person."
"I love Mexico. I didn't mind being a Mexican--I speak Spanish and everything--Hell, I am Spanish--or my father's side of the family is."
"No, I wasn't scared. I had to say what I had to say. I would have thrown this ashtray at him."
"Nothing will make me give up Yasmin's chance to live here in America among our precious freedoms and habits. While I respect the Moslem faith and all other faiths it is my earnest wish that my daughter be raised as a normal, healthy American girl in the Christian faith. There isn't any amount of money in the entire world for which it is worth sacrificing this child's priviledge of living as a normal Christian girl here in the United States. There just isn't anything else in the world that can compare with her sacred chance to do that. And I'm going to give it to Yasmin regardless of what it costs."
Her first acting role was in a school play when she was 11.
Rita Hayworth's new contract with Columbia in 1947 provided a salary of US$250,000 plus 50% of film profits.
She was once informed by a district attorney in Reno, Nevada of a plan to kidnap her 17-month-old daughter. "Little Yasmin would be worth a lot of money," said one thug to an undercover cop. She hired seven policemen to guard her.
Hayworth lost custody of her two small daughters after she was accused of child neglect "while she basked in the Florida sun" on a two-week vacation. She said the charges were baseless, and no evidence of neglect was provided, so she got them back.
She was raised a Roman Catholic.
Orson Welles told her he wanted 17 kids.
She completed education (in Los Angeles) through grade nine.
Hayworth got her big motional picture break because she was willing to change her hair color whereas another actress was unwilling. She changed her hair color eight times in eight movies.
Although she was never a fashion icon like Jackie Kennedy, Hayworth had a unique beauty style. From the time she became a celebrity until she died she had natural long nails. "I take care of my nails myself," she said. "I find my cuticle never tears and my nails don't break if I rub cream into them every night." She was once the cover girl of Nails magazine. In 1940 she started a manicure trend. Hers were longer than previously worn, more oval than pointed, and fully covered with red polish. (Previously there was no polish covering the moon of the nail or the tip.)
In 1949 Hayworth's lips were voted best in the world by the Artists League of America. She had a modeling contract with Max Factor to promote its Tru-Color lipsticks and Pan-Stik makeup.
Her satin nightgown from famous World War II publicity photos sold for $26,888.
Hayworth used to live in Brentwood, Los Angeles, California. In the 1950s, she lived in a Spanish bungalow just off Santa Monica Blvd. at 512 N. Palm Drive in Beverly Hills, California (previously owned by Jean Harlow). Built in 1928, it is 4,426 square feet, and has five bedrooms and five baths. Last sale: July 10, 2007 for $3,960,000.
She owned a Paradise Green 1941 Lincoln Continental Coupe (V12) given to her by Orson Welles. She supposedly drove it for 30 years. It sold at an Art Astor auction in 2008 for about twice its estimated value: $209,000. Then she had a wine-colored, hand-built 1953 Cadillac Ghia Coupe Series 62 she received as a gift from her husband Prince Ali Khan, one of the world's richest men. It is now in the Petersen Automotive Museum.
In 1951 she owned $250,000 of jewelry.
Although Hayworth did not like horses or thoroughbred horse racing, she became a member of the Del Mar Thoroughbred Club. Aly Khan and his family were heavily involved in horse racing and Hayworth's filly Double Rose won several races in France and notably finished second in the 1949 Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe.
In 1962, when she was 42, her planned Broadway debut in Step on a Crack was cancelled for health reasons.
Lynda Carter starred in Rita Hayworth: The Love Goddess (1983), a television biographical film of her life.
As Rita Cansino
Anna Case in La Fiesta (Short subject, 1926, Unconfirmed)
Cruz Diablo aka The Devil's Cross (Uncredited, 1934)
In Caliente (1935) (scenes deleted)
Under the Pampas Moon (1935)
Charlie Chan in Egypt (1935)
Dante's Inferno (1935)
Paddy O'Day (1935)
Human Cargo (1936)
Meet Nero Wolfe (1936)
Old Louisiana (1937)
Hit the Saddle (1937)
Trouble in Texas (1937)
As Rita Hayworth
Criminals of the Air (1937)
Girls Can Play (1937)
The Game That Kills (1937)
Paid to Dance (1937)
The Shadow (1937)
Who Killed Gail Preston? (1938)
Special Inspector (1938)
There's Always a Woman (1938)
Juvenile Court (1938)
The Renegade Ranger (1938)
Homicide Bureau (1939)
The Lone Wolf Spy Hunt (1939)
Only Angels Have Wings (1939)
Music in My Heart (1940)
Blondie on a Budget (1940)
Susan and God (1940)
The Lady in Question (1940)
Angels Over Broadway (1940)
The Strawberry Blonde (1941)
Affectionately Yours (1941)
Blood and Sand (1941)
You'll Never Get Rich (1941)
My Gal Sal (1942)
Tales of Manhattan (1942)
You Were Never Lovelier (1942)
Show Business at War (1943) (short subject)
Cover Girl (1944)
Tonight and Every Night (1945)
Down to Earth (1947)
The Lady from Shanghai (1948)
The Loves of Carmen (1948)
Champagne Safari (1952)
Affair in Trinidad (1952)
Miss Sadie Thompson (1953)
Fire Down Below (1957)
Pal Joey (1957)
Separate Tables (1958)
They Came to Cordura (1959)
The Story on Page One (1959)
The Happy Thieves (1962)
Circus World (1964)
The Money Trap (1965)
The Poppy Is Also a Flower (1966)
I Bastardi (1968)
The Naked Zoo (1971)
Road to Salina (1971)
The Wrath of God (1972)